Indonesia's first coffee plant was of the Arabica variety brought in by the Dutch around 1690. From that time on, the business of cultivating coffee in Indonesia has endured a long and turbulent history. Coffee production today is divided among two farming systems; 90% of the producers are small-scale plantations, whereas 10% of the coffee is produced by state-owned plantations (PTP). Of the more than 300 exporters in Indonesia, only 30 are of commercial significance. Cultivation areas are found throughout the island, including Sumatra (Mendheling), Sulawesi, Java, Flores, Kalimantan and Timor.  
The growing areas are found at between 600 and 2500 meters above sea-level. 80% of beans are of the Robusta variety grown at between 600 and 1100 meters above sea-level. The Arabica beans account for 20% of export volume, grown at between 1000 and 2500 meters above sea level.  
The harvest varies greatly because of the very different types, climatic conditions and production output throughout the year. In the north, harvest time is between December and March, whereas from May to September in the south. The coffee is harvested by hand. After harvesting, 90% of Robusta are processed dry. However, some special types of Robusta and Arabica beans are processed wet (AP, WIP). 
Coffee from Indonesia is classified into seven levels, or 'grades', from 1 to 6 based on the number of defects.  
Production in the 2013/14 harvest year, based on 60-kg sacks: 9'500’000